Glossary

Term Meaning Resources Author
Actor-Network Theory ANT is “a framework and systematic way to consider the infrastructure surrounding technological achievements. Assigns agency to both human and non-human actors”. This theory argues that nothing develops independently, and both human and non-human actors have agency that contribute meaning to platforms. Actor-Network Theory (ANT) – The Learning Theory Jaclyn A.
Affinity Spaces “A type of social space that sometimes take shape online” in which “people come together because of a feeling of similarity or like-mindedness.” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Affordance “Capabilities of an object of technology resulting from the fit between an object or technology’s material properties and human needs or goals” (Humphreys 283);
What an object is capable of doing, the extent of which is suggested by (and perhaps even determined by) its shape, and social use/usage, all of which may change over time and across cultures.
See Donald A. Norman The Design of Everyday Things (1988),
and J J Gibson The Theory of Affordances (1977)
JL
Algorithm An algorithm is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions. A computer program can be viewed as an elaborate algorithm. (whatis.techtarget.com) there are many different kinds of algorithms used on us, social media users to collect our personal information for the benefit of companies, for example advertising companies. · http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/algorithm (programming, definition of algorithm) (2017) Ben L.
Balance Theory “The idea that people seek a balance in their attitudes and opinions about others” (Humphreys 283) “Balance Theory says that if people see a set of cognitive elements as being a system, then they will have a preference to maintain a balanced state among these elements. In other words, if we feel we are ‘out of balance’, then we are motivated to restore a position of balance.” (changingminds.org 2016) Changingminds.org, 2016 “Balance theory desciption” Ben L.
Big Data “An approach that uses large amounts of data to generate predictive or descriptive insights” Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016.” Kimberley C.
Clustering “is when nodes tend to be closely related by one-degree connections. (Watts, 1999). A measure called the clustering coeeficient describes the number of links that a given set of nodes has.” Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Aidan. W
Co-Creation When the audience becomes active and begins to produce things of value (Humphreys,64) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. NR
Collective Intelligence “The idea that no one knows everything, but everyone knows something, [which] argues that this collective knowledge can be harnessed through digital media.” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Communicative Capitalism “A social system where lots of content is indeed produced by people freely and openly [through social media platforms], yet this lacks any substantial potency to transform society and drive it in a better direction.” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Cookie Not chocolate chip. “A cookie is a small amount of data generated by a website and saved by your web browser. Its purpose is to remember information about you, similar to a preference file created by a software application.“ (techterms.com) https://techterms.com/definition/cookie (Internet terms; cookie definition) (2011) Ben L.
Crowdsourcing “Using collectively produced knowledge, often from external sources, to solve a problem” (Humphreys 285). “In a sense, crowdsourcing is the distribution of problem solving. If a company needs funding for a project, marketing content for an upcoming campaign or even research for a new product, the crowd is a powerful resource capable of generating vast amounts of money, content and information.” (Goodrich, Business News Daily).“Using collectively produced knowledge, often from external sources, to solve a problem” (Humphreys 285). “In a sense, crowdsourcing is the distribution of problem solving. If a company needs funding for a project, marketing content for an upcoming campaign or even research for a new product, the crowd is a powerful resource capable of generating vast amounts of money, content and information.” (Goodrich, Business News Daily). · http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4025-what-is-crowdsourcing.html (what is crowdsourcing, 2013). Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Ben L.
Echo Chambers “An echo chamber is a hollow enclosure used to produce reverberated sounds, usually for recording purposes” in terms of media echo chambers are platforms in which ideas and opinions are amplified through transmission and repetion within an enclosed communties. Where opposing veiws may be ignored or are not prevalant topics on the communities newsfeeds. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_chamber_%28media%29 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_chamber NR
Exchange Value The value that is produced whenever a person or company exchanges the good for another good or service, or more commonly, money (Humphreys, 73) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. NR
Expropriation “to take from another’s possession for one’s own use“ (dictionary.com), “to take away money or property especially for public use without payment to the owner, or for personal use“ (dictionary.cambridge.org). Our personal information, browsing habits, interests and more are gathered or expropriated through cookies and other forms of data tracking software · http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/expropriate (Cambridge University Press) (2017) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/expropriation (2017) Ben L.
Graph Theory “An area of research from mathematics that studies the properties of nodes, their connections and their relationships” (pg.153) Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Julie Y.
Interface Interface: Two main definitions according to whatis.techtarget.com: 1. “A programming interface, consisting of the set of statements, functions, options, and other ways of expressing program instructions and data provided by a program or language for a programmer to use.” And 2. “A user interface, consisting of the set of dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate and use the computer or program.” Interface can also be used a verb http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/interface “computing fundamentals: definition Interface” (2017) Ben L.
Libidinal Economy “the economy, or distribution and arrangement, of desire and identification (their condensation and displacement), and the complex relationship between sexuality and the unconscious”; “it is linked not only to forms of attraction, affection and alliance, but also to aggression, destruction, and the violence of lethal consumption” C. (2011, August 9). A Primer on “Libidinal Economy” in Relation to Black Folks [Web log post]. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from http://cosmichoboes.blogspot.ca/2011/08/primer-on-libidinal-economy-in-relation.html Jaclyn A.
Looking-Glass Self “A perspective of self that suggests people express and modify a collection of relatively stable attributes and feelings about these attributes as a result of interaction and feedback from the social and physical world” (Humphreys, p. 288); “The way we see ourselves – for better or worse – is bound up with how others see us” (Humphreys, p. 84) Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Jaclyn A.
Mass Self-Communication Participants are both senders and well as recipients of messages in a network. Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Media Ecology “The perpective that the mode of communication shapes human activity in both interactioanl and historical domains” (Humphreys 15); Suggests that a medium is a technology within which a culture grows, provides opporttunity for a culture’s politics, social organization, and habitual ways of thinking. Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016., Strate, L. (1999). Understanding MEA. Medias Res, 1(1), Strate, L. (2004). A media ecology. Communication Reseach Trends, 23(2), 1-48 Sanatana P.
Media Panics “Each generation of adults will question the media use of younger generations. Young people’s media use is diferent from the forms that were known before, and therefore can generate worry. Much like popular print media in the 19th century, film in the early 20th century, rock music in the 1950s[.]” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Media Richness “A factor describing the amount of sensory information transferred between a sender and reciever” (Humphreys 289); The richness of a particular form of media is judge based on four main criterias: Capacity to include personal focus, immediacy of feedback, conveyance of multiple cues and variety of language carried. See communicationtheory.org “Media Richness Theory” (2010) Ben L.
Mediated courtship A romantic relationship which is mediated by some form of technology, whether that be letter writing, Morse code, or the internet. Pettman, Dominic, Featherstone, Mike, and Yoshimi, Shunya. “Love in the Time of Tamagotchi” Theory, Culture & Society 26.2 3 (2009): 189-208. Web. Katie S.
Memes Unit of cultural information see Richard Dawkins The Selfish Gene (1979),
and Limor Shifman Memes (2014)
JL
Metadata Metadata is essentially data that describes other data. “It provides information about a certain item’s content. For example, an image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, and other data. A text document’s metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, and a short summary of the document.” (techterms.com) https://techterms.com/definition/metadata “metadata definition” (2017) Ben L.
Network Effects “Network effects describe the gains in a system when more and more people use the network.” example- text messaging is only useful if the person you are contacting also has a cell phone. Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Aidan W.
Networked Individualism “The argument that individuals act as nodes in many different networks where they operate as individuals but draw from latent network connections in seeking help or sharing information” (Humphreys, 290) Essentially, networked individualism is a theory where social media users interact with the information and various resources found online, on their own terms. Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Ben L.
Nodes A thing in a network that “can represent a person, organization, object or idea (Monge & Contractor 2003).” (pg. 154) Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Julie Y.
Noosphere A virtual resevior for the collective consciousness, a symbolic place which holds the interactive practises for those who inhabit it. Crosses cultrual and national boarders. Pettman, Dominic, Featherstone, Mike, and Yoshimi, Shunya. “Love in the Time of Tamagotchi” Theory, Culture & Society 26.2 3 (2009): 189-208. Web. Katie S.
Platform “A system that coordinates the exchange or interaction between two or more groups of people” (Humphreys 291) Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Ben L.
Psychographics “Analysis of consumer lifestyles to create a detailed customer profile. Market researchers conduct psychographic research by asking consumers to agree or disagree with activities, interests, and opinions statements. Results of this exercise are combined with geographic (place of work or residence) and demographic (age, education, occupation, etc.) characteristics to develop a more ‘lifelike’ portrait of the targeted consumer segment. (businessdictionary.com) essentially another word for Big Data Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/psychographics.html (definitions) (2017) Ben L.
Remediation “The idea that stylistic elements from previous genres are carried forward into new styles and genres of communication” (pg. 33) Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Sanatana P.
Sharing “A nonreciprocal prosocial behavior in which one or more people pool resources for distribution to others and conversely access resources from this pool for their own use without direct reciprocation” (Humphreys 292) “Sending photos, videos, product recommendations and website links to friends with social networking accounts. Twitter and Facebook icons appear on most every website; however, there are numerous other venues where information can be shared.” (pcmag.com) · https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/64594/social-sharing (2017). Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Ben L.
Sharing Economy “An economic model in which individuals are able to borrow or rent assets owned by someone else, The sharing economy model is most used when the price of a particular asset is high and the asset is not fully utilizied all the time”. It includes both production and comsumption, with overlapping ideological motives sustaining each other. Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016.
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/sharing-economy.asp
Sanatan P.
Social Capital “the number and strength of social connectivity” which a person has Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Aidan W.
Social Comparison Theory “We are continually engaged in presenting the self and receiving input from others…we form evaluations of ourselves through comparison with others” (Humphreys, p.85) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Kimberley C.
Sociogram A charting of the inter-relationships within a group. Its purpose is to discover group structure: i.e., the basic “network” of friendship patterns and sub-group organization. http://www.users.miamioh.edu/shermalw/sociometryfiles/socio_are.htmlx Sanatana P.
Status Status describes the realative place of someone within a social grouping. People gain and loose status acoording to the group recognition of others. Humphries, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. NR
Steganography “a method of hiding information that conceals the very existence
of a message”; in social context, it can mean “hiding content in plain sight”; example: posting about an inside joke that may also be an insult to someone, but not being in on the joke, that person will not recieve the message
Marwick, Alice E, and Boyd, Danah. “Networked Privacy: How Teenagers Negotiate Context in Social Media”. New Media & Society 16.7 (2014): 1058. Web. Jaclyn A.
Technological Determinism “The wrongful assumption that technological changes and shifts in human relationships to these technologies [are] bound to generate certain forms of progressive social, cultural and political change.” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Tie strength “The closeness between nodes” (Humphreys, 294) “The amount of time, the intimacy, the emotional intensity and the reciprocal services between two network nodes” (igi-global.com 2017) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. And igi-global.com, “What is Tie Strength” (2017) Ben L.
Trolling “The ambiguous practice of posting inflammatory remarks, wrongful information, false accusations, or other content which aims to stir up emotions and generate strong reactions […]” Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
Uncanny Valley The phenomenon where a computer-generated figure or human-like robot provides a convincing imitation of a human, but not convincing enough for us to not be able to tell the difference. When something is entirely unhuman, we can identify that and we do not find it creepy. When something is almost human, but not quite, we find it unsettling. This feeling of unsettling is the uncanny valley. Pettman, Dominic, Featherstone, Mike, and Yoshimi, Shunya. “Love in the Time of Tamagotchi” Theory, Culture & Society 26.2 3 (2009): 189-208. Web. Katie S.
Use Value The value that one gets from using the object. For example,assembling a desk from Ikea; has value for the user. (Humphreys, 73) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. NR
Uses and Gratifications Theory “The notion that people consume media for some purpose and to receive some reward”, or gratification; view commonly held for traditional media as well as newer social media (Humphreys, p. 83) Humphreys, Ashlee. Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016. Jaclyn A.
Videos of Affinity Videos that “fulfill the function of getting across the feeling that a particular moment – which might be large or small – is shared between the creator of the video and its viewers[.]” The video acts as a point in a relationship, rather than purely as a source of information or entertainment. Lindgren, Simon. Digital Media & Society. Los Angeles, SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. Shannon C.
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